Biblical Bibliographies
Charles Conroy [www.cjconroy.net]



The Goddess Asherah, with Particular Reference
to the Inscriptions of Kuntillet ʿAjrud and Khirbet el-Qôm



[see also:  Monotheism]



The bibliography is divided into two sections as follows:

I.    Studies on Asherah

Ackerman, S., Under Every Green Tree. Popular Religion in Sixth-Century Judah (HSM 46; Atlanta, GA: Scholars Press, 1992). Reprinted [same title] (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2001).

Ackerman, S., "The Queen Mother and the Cult in Ancient Israel", JBL 112 (1993) 385-401.

Ackerman, S., "At Home with the Goddess", in W. G. Dever – S. Gitin (eds.), Symbiosis, Symbolism, and the Power of the Past. Canaan, Ancient Israel, and their Neighbors from the Late Bronze Age through Roman Palaestina. Proceedings of the Centennial Symposium W. F. Albright Institute of Archaeological Research and American Schools of Oriental Research, Jerusalem, May 29-31, 2000 (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2003) 455-468.

Ackerman, S., "Women and the Worship of Yahweh in Ancient Israel", in S. Gitin – J. E. Wright – J. P. Dessel (eds.), Confronting the Past. Archaeological and Historical Essays on Ancient Israel in Honor of William G. Dever (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2006) 189-197.

Ackerman, S., "Asherah, the West Semitic Goddess of Spinning and Weaving?", JNES 67 (2008) 1-29.

Aḥituv, S. – E. Eshel – Z. Meshel, "The Inscriptions", in Z. Meshel et al., Kuntillet ‘Ajrud (Ḥorvat Teman): An Iron Age II Religious Site on the Judah-Sinai Border (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 2012) 73-142.

Aḥituv, S., "Notes on the Kuntillet ‘Ajrud Inscriptions", in E. Eshel – Y. Levin (eds.), 'See, I Will Bring a Scroll Recounting What Befell Me' (Ps 40:8): Epigraphy and Daily Life from the Bible to the Talmud, Dedicated to the Memory of Professor Hanan Eshel (JAJSup 12; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2014) 29-38.

Angerstorfer, A., "Ašerah als 'consort of Jahwe' oder Aširtah?", BN 17 (1982) 7-16.

Anthonioz, S., "Astarte in the Bible and her Relation to Asherah", in D. T. Sugimoto (ed.), Transformation of a Goddess: Ishtar – Astarte – Aphrodite (OBO 263; Fribourg: Academic Press; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2014) 125-139.

Beck, P., "The Drawings from Ḥorvat Teiman (Kuntillet ‘Ajrud)", TA 9 (1982) 3-68. Reprinted with additional illustrations in P. Beck, Imagery and Representation: Studies in the Art and Iconography of Ancient Palestine. Collected Articles (Tel Aviv Occasional Publications, 3; Tel Aviv: Emery and Claire Yass Publications in Archaeology, 2002) 94-170.

Becking, B. – M. Dijkstra (eds.), Één God alleen...? : over monotheïsme in Oud-Israël en de verering van de godin Asjera (Kampen: Kok, 1998); = B. Becking – M. Dijkstra – M. C. A. Korpel – K. J. H. Vriezen, Only One God? Monotheism in Ancient Israel and the Veneration of the Goddess Asherah (The Biblical Seminar, 77; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2001).

Berlejung, A., "Die Inschriften von Kuntillet Ajrud", in B. Janowski – D. Schwemer (eds.), Texte aus der Umwelt des Alten Testaments. Neue Folge. Band 6: Grab-, Sarg-, Bau- und Votivinschriften (Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus, 2011) 314-319.

Binger, T., "Ashera in Israel", SJOT 9 (1995) 3-18.

Binger, T., Asherah: Goddesses in Ugarit, Israel and the Old Testament (JSOTSup 232 / Copenhagen International Seminar, 2; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1997).

Blum, E., "Die Wandinschriften 4.2 und 4.6 sowie die Pithos-Inschrift 3.9 aus 'Kuntillet ‘Aǧrūd'", ZDPV 129 (2013) 21-54.

Boertien, J. H., "Asherah and Textiles", BN 134 (2007) 63-77.

Braulik, G., "Die Ablehnung der Göttin Aschera in Israel. War sie erst deuteronomistisch, diente sie der Unterdrückung der Frauen?" in M.-T. Wacker – E. Zenger (eds.), Der eine Gott und die Göttin. Gottesvorstellungen des biblischen Israel im Horizont feministischer Theologie (QD 135; Freiburg im Breisgau: Herder, 1991) 106-136. Reprinted [same title], in G. Braulik, Studien zum Buch Deuteronomium (SBAB 24; Stuttgart: Katholisches Bibelwerk, 1997) 81-118.

Břeňová, K., "The Cult of Asherah in Ancient Israel", Archív Orientální 75 (2007) 153-169.

Burns, J. B., "Female Pillar Figurines of the Iron Age: A Study in Text and Artifact", AUSS 36 (1998) 23-49.

Catastini, A., "Le iscrizioni di Kuntillet ‘Ajrud e il profetismo", AION 42 (1982) 127-134.

Catastini, A., "Note di epigrafia ebraica I-II", Hen 6 (1984) 129-138 (esp. 129-135 on the Kh. el-Qôm text].

Catastini, A., "Profeti tra epigrafia e epistolografia", EVO 13 (1990) 143-147.

Chase, D. A., "A Note on an Inscription from Kuntillet ‘Ajrūd", BASOR 246 (Spring 1982) 63-67.

Choi, G., "The Samarian Syncretic Yahwism and the Religious Center of Kuntillet ‘Ajrud", in S. Ganor – I. Kreimerman – K. Streit – M. Mumcuoglu (eds.), From Sha‘ar Hagolan to Shaaraim: Essays in Honor of Prof. Yosef Garfinkel (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 2016) 341-370.

Collins, J. J., The Bible after Babel: Historical Criticism in a Postmodern Age (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2005) 99-129 [= Chap. 5: "Israelite Religion: The Return of the Goddess"].

Cornelius, I., The Many Faces of the Goddess: The Iconography of the Syro-Palestinian Goddesses Anat, Astarte, Qedeshet, and Asherah c. 1500-1000 BCE (OBO 204; Fribourg: Academic Press; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2004).

Cornelius, I., "In Search of the Goddess in Ancient Palestinian Iconography", in M. Pietsch – F. Hartenstein (eds.), Israel zwischen den Mächten: Festschrift für Stefan Timm zum 65. Geburtstag (AOAT 364; Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2009) 77-98.

Cross, F. M., "The Phoenician Ostracon from Acco, the Ekron Inscriptions and אשרתה", in J. Aviram – A. Ben-Tor – I. Eph’al – S. Gitin – R. Reich (eds.), Ephraim Stern Volume (Eretz-Israel 29; Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society in cooperation with the Institute of Archaeology, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 2009) 19*-28*

Day, J., "Asherah in the Hebrew Bible and Northwest Semitic Literature", JBL 105 (1986) 385-408.

Day, J., "Asherah", ABD I (1992) 483-487.

Day, J., "Yahweh and the Gods and Goddesses of Canaan", in W. Dietrich – M. A. Klopfenstein (eds.), Ein Gott allein? JHWH-Verehrung und biblischer Monotheismus im Kontext der israelitischen und altorientalischen Religionsgeschichte (OBO 139; Freiburg, Schweiz: Universitätsverlag; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1994) 181-196.

Day, P. L., "Hebrew Bible Goddesses and Modern Feminist Scholarship", Religion Compass 6 (2012) 298-308. (online journal)

Dever, W. G., "Iron Age Epigraphic Material from the Area of Khirbet el-Kôm", HUCA 40-41 (1969-1970) 139-204.

Dever, W. G., "Recent Archaeological Confirmation of the Cult of Asherah in Ancient Israel", HS 23 (1982) 37-43.

Dever, W. G., "Asherah, Consort of Yahweh? New Evidence from Kuntillet ‘Ajrud", BASOR 255 (Summer 1984) 21-37.

Dever, W. G., "Archaeology and the Ancient Israelite Cult: How the Kh. el-Qôm and Kuntillet ‘Ajrud 'Asherah' Texts Have Changed the Picture", in B. A. Levine – P. J. King – J. Naveh – E. Stern (eds), Frank Moore Cross Volume (Eretz-Israel 26; Jerusalem: The Israel Exploration Society, 1999) 9*-15*.

Dever, W. G., Did God Have a Wife? Archaeology and Folk Religion in Ancient Israel (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2005).

Dever, W. G., "A Temple Built for Two: Did Yahweh Share a Throne with his Consort Asherah?", BAR 34/2 (2008) 55-62, 85.

Dietrich, M. – O. Loretz, 'Jahwe und seine Aschera': Anthropomorphes Kultbild in Mesopotamien, Ugarit and Israel. Das biblische Bilderverbot (Ugaritisch-Biblische Literatur, 9; Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 1992).

Dietrich, M., "Aschera, die Gattin von El-Jahwe: die Entwicklung des bildlosen jüdischen Kults im Lichte der ugaritischen Texte sowie der Inschriften aus Khirbet el-Qôm, Kuntillet Ajrud und Tell Miqne", in M. Dietrich – O. Loretz, 'Jahwe und seine Aschera': Anthropomorphes Kultbild in Mesopotamien, Ugarit and Israel. Das biblische Bilderverbot (Ugaritisch-Biblische Literatur, 9; Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 1992) 77-172.

Dijkstra, M., "Ik heb u gezegend bij JHWH van Samaria en zijn Asjera: religieuze teksten uit het bodemarchief van Oud-Israël", in B. Becking – M. Dijkstra (eds.), Één God alleen...? : over monotheïsme in Oud-Israël en de verering van de godin Asjera (Kampen: Kok, 1998) 11-30; = "I Have Blessed You by YHWH of Samaria and his Ashera: Texts with Religious Elements from the Soil Archive of Ancient Israel", in B. Becking – M. Dijkstra – M. C. A. Korpel – K. J. H. Vriezen, Only One God? Monotheism in Ancient Israel and the Veneration of the Goddess Asherah (The Biblical Seminar, 77; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2001) 17-44.

Duarte Castillo, R., "Fue Ashera esposa de YHWH?", Efemérides Mexicana 13 (1987) 62-75.

Emerton, J. A., "New Light on Israelite Religion: The Implications of the Inscriptions from Kuntillet ‘Ajrud", ZAW 94 (1982) 2-20. Reprinted [same title] in J. A. Emerton, Studies on the Language and Literature of the Bible: Selected Works of J. A. Emerton. Edited by G. Davies and R. Gordon (VTSup 165; Leiden: Brill, 2015) 364-383.

Emerton, J. A., "'Yahweh and His Asherah': The Goddess or Her Symbol?", VT 49 (1999) 315-337. Reprinted [same title] in J. A. Emerton, Studies on the Language and Literature of the Bible: Selected Works of J. A. Emerton. Edited by G. Davies and R. Gordon (VTSup 165; Leiden: Brill, 2015) 410-430.

Finkelstein, I., "Notes on the Historical Setting of Kuntillet ‘Ajrud", Maarav 20 (2013) 13–25. [part of a special number of Maarav 20.1 (2013) entitled "Kuntillet ‘Ajrud: Iron Age Inscriptions and Iconography", edited by Brian B. Schmidt; the issue actually appeared in 2015.]

Freedman, D. N., "Yahweh of Samaria and his Asherah", BA 50 (1987) 241-249.

Frevel, C., Aschera und der Ausschließlichkeitsanspruch YHWHs. Beiträge zu literarischen, religionsgeschichtlichen und ikonographischen Aspekten der Ascheradiskussion. 2 vol. (BBB 94/1 + 2; Weinheim: Beltz Athenäum, 1995).

Gangloff, F., "'Je suis son ‘Anat et son ’Asherâh' (Os 14,9)", ETL 74 (1998) 373-385.

Gangloff, F., "La 'Grande Déesse' dans le Proche-Orient ancien et dans l'Ancien Testament: une esquisse", ETR 74 (1999) 1-19.

Gilmour, G. H., "An Iron Age II Pictorial Inscription from Jerusalem Illustrating Yahweh and Asherah", PEQ 141 (2009) 87-103.

Gunneweg, J. – I. Perlman – Z. Meshel, "The Origin of the Pottery of Kuntillet ‘Ajrud", IEJ 35 (1985) 270-283.

Hadley, J. M., "Some Drawings and Inscriptions on Two Pithoi from Kuntillet ‘Ajrud", VT 37 (1987) 180-213.

Hadley, J. M., "The Khirbet el-Qôm Inscription", VT 37 (1987) 50-62.

Hadley, J. M., "Kuntillet ‘Ajrud: Religious Centre or Desert Way Station?", PEQ 125 (1993) 115-124.

Hadley, J. M., "Yahweh and 'His Asherah': Archaeological and Textual Evidence for the Cult of the Goddess", in W. Dietrich – M. A. Klopfenstein (eds.), Ein Gott allein? JHWH-Verehrung und biblischer Monotheismus im Kontext der israelitischen und altorientalischen Religionsgeschichte (OBO 139; Freiburg, Schweiz: Universitätsverlag; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1994) 235-268.

Hadley, J. M., "Chasing Shadows? The Quest for the Historical Goddess", in J. A. Emerton (ed.), Congress Volume Cambridge 1995 (VTSup 66; Leiden: Brill, 1997) 169-184.

Hadley, J. M., "From Goddess to Literary Construct: The Transformation of Asherah into Ḥokmah", in A. Brenner – C. Fontaine (eds.), A Feminist Companion to Reading the Bible: Approaches, Methods and Strategies (The Feminist Companion to the Bible, 11; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1997) 360-399.

Hadley, J. M., The Cult of Asherah in Ancient Israel and Judah: Evidence for a Hebrew Goddess (University of Cambridge Oriental Publications, 57; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).

Hadley, J. M., "The De-Deification of Deities in Deuteronomy", in R. P. Gordon (ed.), The God of Israel (University of Cambridge Oriental Publications, 64; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007) 157-174.

Halpern, B., "The Baal (and the Asherah) in Seventh-Century Judah: Yhwh's Retainers Retired", in R. Bartelmus – T. Krüger – H. Utzschneider (eds.), Konsequente Traditionsgeschichte. Festschrift für Klaus Baltzer zum 65. Geburtstag (OBO 126; Freiburg, Schweiz: Universitätsverlag; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1993) 115-154. Reprinted in B. Halpern, From Gods to God: The Dynamics of Iron Age Cosmologies (FAT 63; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2009) 57-97.

Heintz, J.-G., "Une tradition occultée? La déesse cananéenne ‘Anat et son '’ašèrâh' dans le livre du prophète Osée (chap. 14, v. 9b)", in J.-G. Heintz, Prophétisme et Alliance: Des Archives royales de Mari à la Bible hébraïque. Édité par Stephan Lauber avec Othmar Keel et Hans-Ulrich Steymans, mit einem Vorwort von Manfred Weippert (OBO 271; Fribourg: Academic Press; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2015) 205-221.

Hess, R. S., "Asherah or Asherata?", Or N.S. 65 (1996) 209-219.

Hestrin, R., "The Lachish Ewer and the ’Asherah", IEJ 37 (1987) 212-223.

Hestrin, R., "Understanding Asherah: Exploring Semitic Iconography", BAR 17/5 (1991) 50-59.

Höffken, P., "Eine Bemerkung zum religionsgeschichtlichen Hintergrund von Dtn 6,4", BZ N.F. 28 (1984) 88-93.

Holladay, J. S. – L. T. Geraty, "Kôm, Khirbet el-", ABD IV (1992) 97-100.

Hutton, J. M., "Local Manifestations of Yahweh and Worship in the Interstices: A Note on Kuntillet ‘Ajrud", JANER 10 (2010) 177-210.

Ikeda, Y., "Because Their Shade Is Good: Asherah in the Early Israelite Religion", in E. Matsushima (ed.), Official Cult and Popular Religion in the Ancient Near East: Papers of the First Colloquium on the Ancient Near East – The City and Its Life, Held at the Middle Eastern Culture Center in Japan (Mitaka, Tokyo, March 20-22, 1992) (Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag C. Winter, 1993) 56-80.

Irsigler, H., "»YHWH und seine Aschera« in althebräischer Epigraphik. Zur Kontroverse um ihre Beziehung", in K. Ólason (ed.), »Ruft nicht die Weisheit..?« (Spr 8,1). Alttestamentliche und epigraphische Textinterpretation. Symposion in Skáholt, 1.-3. Juni 2009 (ATSAT 94; St Ottilien: EOS, 2011) 127-166. Reprinted [same title] in H. Irsigler, "Denk an deinen Schöpfer": Studien zum Verständnis von Gott, Mensch und Volk im Alten Testament (SBAB 60; Stuttgart: Katholisches Bibelwerk, 2015) 231-269.

Jaroš, K., "Zur Inschrift Nr. 3 von Ḫirbet el-Qōm", BN 19 (1982) 31-40.

Jeremias, J. – F. Hartenstein, "'JHWH und seine Aschera': 'offizielle Religion' und 'Volksreligion' zur Zeit der klassischen Propheten", in B. Janowski – M. Köckert (eds.), Religionsgeschichte Israels. Formale und materiale Aspekte (Veröffentlichungen der Wissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft für Theologie, 15; Gütersloh: Kaiser, 1999) 79-138.

Jericke, D., Regionaler Kult und lokaler Kult: Studien zur Kult- und Religionsgeschichte Israels und Judas im 9. und 8. Jahrhundert v. Chr. (ADPV 39; Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2010).

Johnston, P. S., "Figuring Out Figurines", TynBul 54 (2003) 81-104.

Keel, O., Goddesses and Trees, New Moon and Yahweh: Ancient Near Eastern Art and the Hebrew Bible (JSOTSup 261; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1998).

Kletter, R., The Judean Pillar-Figurines and the Archaeology of Asherah (BAR International Series, 636; Oxford: Tempus Reparatum, 1996).

Kletter, R., "Between Archaeology and Theology: The Pillar Figurines from Judah and the Asherah", in A. Mazar (ed.), Studies in the Archaeology of the Iron Age in Israel and Jordan (JSOTSup 331; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2001) 179-216.

Kletter, R., "Asherah and the Judean Pillar Figurines Endangered?" in S. Parpola – R. M. Whiting (eds.), Sex and Gender in the Ancient Near East. Proceedings of the 47th Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale, Helsinki, July 2-6, 2001. 2 vol. continuous pagination (Helsinki: The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project, 2002) 289-300.

Koch, K., "Aschera als Himmelskönigin in Jerusalem", UF 20 (1988) 97-120.

Korpel, M. C.A., "Asjera buiten Israël", in B. Becking – M. Dijkstra (eds.), Één God alleen...? : over monotheïsme in Oud-Israël en de verering van de godin Asjera (Kampen: Kok, 1998) 93-113; = "Asherah outside Israel", in B. Becking – M. Dijkstra – M. C. A. Korpel – K. J. H. Vriezen, Only One God? Monotheism in Ancient Israel and the Veneration of the Goddess Asherah (The Biblical Seminar, 77; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2001) 127-150.

LaRocca-Pitts, E. C., "Of Wood and Stone": The Significance of Israelite Cultic Items in the Bible and Its Early Interpreters (HSM 61; Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2001).

Lemaire, A., "Les inscriptions de Khirbet el-Qôm et l'ashérah de Yhwh", RB 84 (1977) 595-608.

Lemaire, A., "Date et origine des inscriptions hébraïques et phéniciennes de Kuntillet ‘Ajrud", SEL 1 (1984) 131-143.

Lemaire, A., "Who or What was Yahweh's Asherah?", BAR 10/6 (1984) 42-51.

Lemaire, A., "Déesses et dieux de Syrie-Palestine d'après les inscriptions (c. 1000 – 500 av. n. è.)", in W. Dietrich – M. A. Klopfenstein (eds.), Ein Gott allein? JHWH-Verehrung und biblischer Monotheismus im Kontext der israelitischen und altorientalischen Religionsgeschichte (OBO 139; Freiburg, Schweiz: Universitätsverlag; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1994) 127-158.

Lemaire, A., "Remarques sur les inscriptions phéniciennes de Kuntillet ‘Ajrud", Semitica 55 (2013) 83-99.

LeMon, J. M. – B. A. Strawn, "Once More, YHWH and Company at Kuntillet ‘Ajrud", Maarav 20 (2013) 83–114. [part of a special number of Maarav 20.1 (2013) entitled "Kuntillet ‘Ajrud: Iron Age Inscriptions and Iconography", edited by Brian B. Schmidt; the issue actually appeared in 2015.]

Leuenberger, M., Segen und Segenstheologien im alten Israel: Untersuchungen zu ihren religions- und theologiegeschichtlichen Konstellationen und Transformationen (ATANT 90; Zürich: Theologischer Verlag, 2008).

Levine, B. A., "Israelite Religion in the Light of Hebrew Epigraphy: The Inscriptions from Kuntillet ‘Ajrud", in A. J. Avery-Peck – B. Chilton – W. S. Green – G. G. Porton (eds.), A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (Brill Reference Library of Judaism, 43; Leiden: Brill, 2014) 171-191.

Loretz, O., "‘Anat-Aschera (Hos 14,9) und die Inschriften von Kuntillet ‘Ajrud", SEL 6 (1989) 57-65.

Maier, W. A., ’Ašerah: Extrabiblical Evidence (HSM 37; Atlanta, GA: Scholars, 1986).

Mandell, A., "'I Bless You to YHWH and his Asherah': Writing and Performativity at Kuntillet ‘Ajrud", Maarav 19 (2012) 131-162.

Margalit, B., "Some Observations on the Inscription and Drawing from Khirbet el-Qôm", VT 39 (1989) 371-378.

Margalit, B., "Das Ashera-Problem von Kuntillet Aǧrud und seine Implikation für die hebräische Bibelforschung", Trumah [Heidelberg] 2 (1990) 58-71.

Margalit, B., "The Meaning and Significance of Asherah", VT 40 (1990) 264-297.

Mastin, B. A., "Yahweh's Asherah, Inclusive Monotheism and the Question of Dating", in J. Day (ed.), In Search of Pre-Exilic Israel. Proceedings of the Oxford Old Testament Seminar (JSOTSup 406; London: T & T Clark International, 2004) 326-351.

Mastin, B. A., "The Inscriptions Written on Plaster at Kuntillet ‘Ajrud", VT 59 (2009) 99-115.

Mastin, B. A., "Who Built and Who Used the Buildings at Kuntillet ‘Ajrud?", in J. K. Aitken – K. J. Dell – B. A. Mastin (eds.), On Stone and Scroll: Essays in Honour of Graham Ivor Davies (BZAW 420; Berlin: de Gruyter, 2011) 69-85.

Mayes, A. D. H., "Kuntillet ‘Ajrud and the History of Israelite Religion", in J. R. Bartlett (ed.), Archaeology and Biblical Interpretation (London: Routledge, 1997) 51-66.

Mendenhall, G. E., "The Worship of Baal and Asherah: A Study in the Social Bonding Functions of Religious Systems", in A. Kort – S. Morschauser (eds.), Biblical and Related Studies Presented to Samuel Iwry (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1985) 147-158.

Merlo, P., "L'Asherah de Yhwh a Kuntillet ‘Ajrud. Rassegna critica degli studi e delle interpretazioni", SEL 11 (1994) 21-55.

Merlo, P., "Note critiche su alcune presunte iconografie della dea Ašera", SEL 14 (1997) 43-63.

Merlo, P., La dea Ašratum – Atiratu – Ašera: un contributo alla storia della religione semitica del Nord (Corona Lateranensis; Roma: Pontificia Università Lateranense, 1998).

Merlo, P., "Asherah", EBR 2 (2009) 975-980.

Meshel, Z. – C. Meyers, "The Name of God in the Wilderness of Zin", BA 39 (1976) 6-10.

Meshel, Z., Kuntillet ‘Ajrud – A Religious Centre from the Time of the Judaean Monarchy on the Border of Sinai (Israel Museum Catalogue, 175: Jerusalem: Israel Museum, 1978).

Meshel, Z., "Did Yahweh Have a Consort?", BARev 5/2 (1979) 24-35.

Meshel, Z., "Kuntillet ‘Ajrud", Monde de la Bible (Aug.-Oct. 1979) 32-36.

Meshel, Z., "The Israelite Religious Centre of Kuntillet ‘Ajrud", Bulletin of the Anglo-Israel Archaeological Society (1982-1983) 52-55.

Meshel, Z., "The Israelite Religious Centre of Kuntillet ‘Ajrud, Sinai", in A. Bonanno (ed.), Archaeology and Fertility Cult in the Ancient Mediterranean (Amsterdam: Grüner, 1986) 237-240.

Meshel, Z., "Two Aspects in the Excavation of Kuntillet ‘Ajrud", in W. Dietrich – M. A. Klopfenstein (eds.), Ein Gott allein? JHWH-Verehrung und biblischer Monotheismus im Kontext der israelitischen und altorientalischen Religionsgeschichte (OBO 139; Freiburg, Schweiz: Universitätsverlag; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1994) 99-104.

Meshel, Z., Kuntillet ‘Ajrud (Ḥorvat Teman): An Iron Age II Religious Site on the Judah-Sinai Border. With contributions by S. Aḥituv and many others. Edited by L. Freud (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 2012).

Mittmann, S., "Die Grabinschrift des Sängers Uriahu", ZDPV 97 (1981) 139-152.

Müller, H.-P., "Kolloquialsprache und Volksreligion in den Inschriften von Kuntillet ‘Aǧrūd und Ḫirbet el-Qōm", ZAH 5 (1992) 15-51. Reprinted in A. Lange – K. D. Römheld (eds.), Wege zur Hebräischen Bibel. Denken – Sprache – Kultur. In memoriam Hans-Peter Müller (FRLANT 228; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2009) 149-192.

Na’aman, N., "Kuntillet ‘Ajrud, Sacred Trees and the Asherah", TA 35 (2008) 186-208.

Na’aman, N., "The Inscriptions of Kuntillet ‘Ajrud Through the Lens of Historical Research", UF 43 (2011) 299-324.

Na’aman, N., "A New Outlook at Kuntillet ‘Ajrud and Its Inscriptions", Maarav 20 (2013) 39–51. [part of a special number of Maarav 20.1 (2013) entitled "Kuntillet ‘Ajrud: Iron Age Inscriptions and Iconography", edited by Brian B. Schmidt; the issue actually appeared in 2015.]

Niehr, H., "Religio-Historical Aspects of the 'Early Post-Exilic' Period", in B. Becking – M. C. A. Korpel (eds), The Crisis of Israelite Religion: Transformation of Religious Tradition in Exilic and Post-Exilic Times (OTS 42; Leiden: Brill, 1999) 228-244.

North, R., "Yahweh's Asherah", in M. P. Horgan – P. J. Kobelski (eds.), To Touch the Text. Biblical and Related Studies in Honor of Joseph A. Fitzmyer S.J. (New York: Crossroad, 1989) 118-137.

O'Connor, M., "The Poetic Inscription from Khirbet el-Qôm", VT 37 (1987) 224-230.

Olyan, S. M., Asherah and the Cult of Yahweh in Israel (SBLMS 34, Atlanta, GA: Scholars, 1988).

Park, S. J., "Short Notes on the Etymology of Asherah", UF 42 (2010) 527-533.

Park, S. J., "The Cultic Identity of Asherah in Deuteronomistic Ideology of Israel", ZAW 123 (2011) 553-564.

Parker, S. B., "Divine Intercession in Judah?", VT 56 (2006) 76-91.

Pettey, R. J., Asherah, Goddess of Israel (American University Studies VII/74; New York: Peter Lang, 1990).

Puech, É., "Les inscriptions hébraïques de Kuntillet ‘Ajrud (Sinaï)", RB 121 (2014) 161-194.

Puech, É., "L'inscription 3 de Khirbet el-Qôm revisitée et l'’ashérah", RB 122 (2015) 5-25.

Puech, É., "Yahvé et son ashérah dans les inscriptions de l'époque du Fer II", in J. L. D'Amico – C. Mendoza (eds.), "La palabra está muy cerca de ti, en tu boca y en tu corazón..." (Dt 30,14): homenaje a Fray Gabriel Nápole, OP (1959-2013) (Suplementos a la Revista bíblica, 1; Buenos Aires: Asociación Bíblica Argentina & PPC Argentina, 2015) 141-155.

Roberts, J. J. M. – K. L. Roberts, "Yahweh's Significant Other", in L. Day – C. Pressler (eds.), Engaging the Bible in a Gendered World: An Introduction to Feminist Biblical Interpretation in Honor of Katharine Doob Sakenfeld (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox, 2006) 176-185.

Rüterswörden, U., "Linguistik und Religionsgeschichte. Hans-Peter Müllers grammatische und formgeschichtliche Analyse von Inschriften aus Kuntillet ‘Aǧrūd und Ḫirbet el-Qōm", in A. Lange – K. D. Römheld (eds.), Wege zur Hebräischen Bibel. Denken – Sprache – Kultur. In memoriam Hans-Peter Müller (FRLANT 228; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2009) 193-200.

Sass, B., "On Epigraphic Hebrew ’ŠR and *’ŠRH, and on Biblical Asherah", Transeu 46 (2014) 47-66 (with Pls. 4-5 on 189-190). This issue of Transeu is part of the Mélanges Lemaire: J. Elayi – J.-M. Durand (eds.). Bible et Proche-Orient. Mélanges André Lemaire. 3 vol. (Transeuphratène 44-46; Pendé: Gabalda, 2014).

Schmidt, B. B., "The Iron Age Pithoi Drawings from Ḥorvat Teman or Kuntillet ‘Ajrud: Some New Proposals", JANER 2 (2002) 91-125.

Schmidt, B. B., "Gender Marking, Overlapping and the Identity of the Bes-Like Figures at Kuntillet ‘Ajrud", in I. Hjelm – T. L. Thompson (eds.), History, Archaeology and The Bible Forty Years After "Historicity" (Copenhagen International Seminar – Changing Perspectives, 6; London & New York: Routledge, 2016) 85-111.

Schmidt, B. B., The Materiality of Power: Explorations in the Social History of Ancient Israelite Magic (FAT 105; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2016).

Schmitt, H.-C., "Monolatrie Jahwes bei Hosea, in der vorexilischen Weisheit und in Kuntillet Ajrud", in R. Lux – E.-J. Waschke (eds.), Die unwiderstehliche Wahrheit. Studien zur alttestamentlichen Prophetie. Festschrift für Arndt Meinhold (Arbeiten zur Bibel und ihrer Geschichte, 23; Leipzig: Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, 2006) 241-263.

Schroer, S., In Israel gab es Bilder. Nachrichten von darstellender Kunst im Alten Testament (OBO 74; Freiburg, Schweiz: Universitätsverlag; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1987), esp. 21-45 ("Ascheren und Aschera im Alten Testament").

Shanks, H., "Persisting Uncertainties of Kuntillet ‘Ajrud", BAR 38/6 (2012) 29-37, 76.

Singer-Avitz, L., "The Date of Kuntillet ‘Ajrud", TA 33 (2006) 196-228.

Smith, M. S., "God Male and Female in the Old Testament: Yahweh and his 'Asherah'", TS 48 (1987) 333-340.

Smith, M. S., "The Blessing God and Goddess: A Longitudinal View from Ugarit to 'Yahweh and... His Asherah' at Kuntillet ‘Ajrud", in G. Eidevall – B. Scheuer (eds.), Enigmas and Images: Studies in Honor of Tryggve Mettinger (CBOT 58: Winona Lake, IN; Eisenbrauns, 2011) 213-226.

Stern, E., "Religion in Palestine in the Assyrian and Persian Periods", in B. Becking – M. C. A. Korpel (eds), The Crisis of Israelite Religion: Transformation of Religious Tradition in Exilic and Post-Exilic Times (OTS 42; Leiden: Brill, 1999) 245-255.

Stuckey, J. H., "The Great Goddesses of the Levant", JSSEA 29 (2002) 28-57.

Taylor, J. E., "The Asherah, the Menorah and the Sacred Tree", JSOT 66 (1995) 29-54.

Thomas, R., "The Identity of the Standing Figures on Pithos A from Kuntillet ‘Ajrud: A Reassessment", JANER 16 (2016) 121-191.

Vermaak, P. S., "Asherah, the Mother Goddess and 'Asherah', the Game Board", Journal for Semitics 10,1-2 (1998-2001) 43-71.

Wacker, M.-T., "Aschera oder die Ambivalenz des Weiblichen. Anmerkungen zum Beitrag von Georg Braulik", in M.-T. Wacker – E. Zenger (eds.), Der eine Gott und die Göttin. Gottesvorstellungen des biblischen Israel im Horizont feministischer Theologie (QD 135; Freiburg im Breisgau: Herder, 1991) 137-150. [see above for Braulik's paper]

Weinfeld, M., "Kuntillet ‘Ajrud Inscriptions and their Significance", SEL 1 (1984) 121-130.

Wenning, R., "Wer war der Paredros der Aschera? Notizen zu Terrakottastatuetten in eisenzeitlichen Gräbern", BN 59 (1991) 89-97.

Wiggins, S. A., "The Myth of Asherah: Lion Lady and Serpent Goddess", UF 23 (1991) 383-394.

Wiggins, S. A., A Reassessment of 'Ashera'. A Study According to the Textual Sources of the First Two Millennia BCE (AOAT 235; Kevelaer: Butzon & Bercker; Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1993). See below for the second expanded edition of 2007.

Wiggins, S. A., "Asherah Again: Binger's 'Asherah' and the State of Asherah Studies", JNSL 24 (1998) 231-240.

Wiggins, S. A., "Of Asherahs and Trees: Some Methodological Questions", JANER 1 (2001) 158-187.

Wiggins, S. A., A Reassessment of Asherah with Further Considerations of the Goddess. Second Edition with Additional Material (Gorgias Ugaritic Studies, 2; Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press, 2007). [first edition 1993, see above]

Wilson, I. D., "Judean Pillar Figurines and Ethnic Identity in the Shadow of Assyria", JSOT 36.3 (Mar. 2012) 259-278.

Winter, U., Frau und Göttin. Exegetische und ikonographische Studien zum weiblichen Gottesbild im Alten Israel und in dessen Umwelt (OBO 53; Freiburg, Schweiz: Universitätsverlag; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1983).

Wyse-Rhodes, J., "Finding Asherah: The Goddesses in Text and Image", in I. J. de Hulster – J. M. LeMon (eds.), Image, Text, Exegesis: Iconographic Interpretation and the Hebrew Bible (LHB/OTS 588; London & New York: Bloomsbury T&T Clark, 2014) 71-90.

Xella, P., "Le dieu et «sa» déesse: l'utilisation des suffixes pronominaux avec les théonymes d'Ebla, à Ugarit et à Kuntillet ‘Ajrud", UF 27 (1995) 599-610.

Zevit, Z., "The Khirbet el-Qôm Inscription Mentioning a Goddess", BASOR 255 (Summer 1984) 39-47.

II.    Recent collections of Hebrew inscriptions    [see also here

Davies, G. I., assisted by M. N. A. Bockmuehl – D. R. de Lacey – A. J. Poulter, Ancient Hebrew Inscriptions: Corpus and Concordance (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991). Reprinted as paperback in 2007.

Davies, G. I., assisted by J. K. Aitken – D. R. de Lacey – P. A. Smith – J. Squirrel, Ancient Hebrew Inscriptions, II: Corpus and Concordance (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004).

Dobbs-Allsopp, F. W. – J. J. M. Roberts – C. L. Seow – R. E. Whitaker, Hebrew Inscriptions. Texts from the Biblical Period of the Monarchy with Concordance (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2005).

Jaroš, K., Zeugen auf Stein und Ton. Inschriften des Heiligen Landes und seiner Nachbarreligionen aus vier Jahrtausenden (Ruhpolding & Wiesbaden: Verlag Franz Philipp Rutzen in Kommission bei Harrassowitz, 2014).

Renz, J. – W. Röllig, Handbuch der althebräischen Epigraphik. Band I. Die althebräischen Inschriften, Teil 1: Text und Kommentar (J. Renz). — Band II/1. Die althebräischen Inschriften, Teil 2: Zusammenfassende Erörterungen, Paläographie und Glossar (J. Renz). — Band II/2. Materialien zur althebräischen Morphologie (J. Renz); Siegel und Gewichte (W. Röllig). — Band III. Texte und Tafeln (J. Renz) (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1995 and 2003). [Band II/2 appeared in 2003, all the other parts in 1995].