Biblical Bibliographies
Charles Conroy [www.cjconroy.net]



The Amarna Letters, with particular reference to the Southern Levant



[see also:  Egypt and Canaan;  Habiru and related groups]



The bibliography is divided into four sections as follows:

I.    Editions of the Amarna Texts and some translations

Knudtzon, J. A., Die El-Amarna-Tafeln, mit Einleitung und Erläuterungen. Bd.1: Die Texte. Bd. 2: Anmerkungen und Register. Anmerkungen und Register bearbeitet von Otto Weber und Erich Ebeling (Vorderasiatische Bibliothek, 2.1 / 2.2; Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs, 1907 / 1915 [repr. Aalen: O. Zeller, 1964]). Online copies: Vol. 1 and Vol. 2.

Liverani, M. (ed.), Le lettere di el-Amarna. 1. Le lettere dei 'Piccoli Re'; 2. Le lettere dei 'Grandi Re'. 2 vol. (TVOA 2/3.1-2; Brescia: Paideia, 1998/1999).

Mercer, S. A. B., The Tell El-Amarna Tablets. Edited by Samuel A. B. Mercer, with the assistance of Frank Hudson Hallock. 2 vol. (Toronto: Macmillan, 1939).

Moran, W. L. (avec la collaboration de V. Haas et G. Wilhelm), Les lettres d'El-Amarna. Correspondance diplomatique du Pharaon (Littératures anciennes du Proche-Orient, 13; Paris: Cerf, 1987); = The Amarna Letters. Revised edition (Baltimore / London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992).

Moran, W. L., "Akkadian Archival Documents, Letters: Tell el-Amarna", COS 3.92A-G:237-242 (a selection of seven letters from the Syro-Palestinian area).

Rainey, A. F., El Amarna Tablets 359-379: Supplement to J.A. Knudtzon Die El-Amarna-Tafeln. 2nd edition revised (AOAT 8; Kevelaer: Butzon & Bercker; Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1978). [first ed. (same series number) 1970]

Rainey, A. F., The El-Amarna Correspondence: A New Edition of the Cuneiform Letters from the Site of El-Amarna Based on Collations of All Extant Tablets. Collated, transcribed, and translated by Anson F. Rainey Z″l. Volume 1 edited by W. M. Schniedewind, volume 2 edited and completed by Z. Cochavi-Rainey (Handbuch der Orientalistik, 1: Der Nahe und Mittlere Osten, 110 / Handbook of Oriental Studies. Section 1: The Near and Middle East, 110; Leiden: Brill, 2015).

Schwemer, D. – G. Wilhelm – J. Klinger – A. F. Rainey, "Briefe aus dem Archiv von el-Amarna", TUAT N.F. 3:173-229. See esp. A. F. Rainey, "Briefe aus Palästina", 195-205.

Winckler, H., Die Thontafeln von Tell-el-Amarna (Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek, Sammlung von assyrischen und babylonischen Texten in Umschrift und Übersetzung, hrsg. von Eberhard Schrader, Band 5; Berlin: Reuther & Reichard, 1896); = The Tell-el-Amarna Letters (New York and London: Lemcke & Buechner, 1896) [transliterated text and English translation on opposite pages]. The German edition is online here.

II.    Selected studies, with particular reference to the Southern Levant / Canaan

Albright, W. F., "The Amarna Letters from Palestine", in I. E. S. Edwards – C. J. Gadd – N. G. L. Hammond – E. Sollberger (eds.), The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. II, Part II: History of the Middle East and the Aegean Region c. 1380-1000 B.C. Third edition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975) 98-116.

Aldred, C., "Egypt: The Amarna Period and the End of the Eighteenth Dynasty", in I. E. S. Edwards – C. J. Gadd – N. G. L. Hammond – E. Sollberger (eds.), The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. II, Part II: History of the Middle East and the Aegean Region c. 1380-1000 B.C. Third edition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975) 49-97.

Astour, M.C., "The Ḫapiru in the Amarna Texts. Basic Points of Controversy", UF 31 (1999) 31-50.

Baranowski, K. J., The Verb in the Amarna Letters from Canaan (Languages of the Ancient Near East, 6; Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2016).

Benz, B. C., The Land Before the Kingdom of Israel: A History of the Southern Levant and the People Who Populated It (History, Archaeology, and Culture of the Levant, 7; Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2016).

Bryce, T., Letters of the Great Kings of the Ancient Near East: The Royal Correspondence of the Late Bronze Age (London: Routledge, 2003).

Campbell, E. F., "The Amarna Letters and the Amarna Period", BA 23 (1960) 2-22. Reprinted in E. F. Campbell – D. N. Freedman (eds.), The Biblical Archaeologist Reader. Vol. III (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1970) 54-75.

Campbell, E. F., "Shechem in the Amarna Archive", in G. E. Wright, Shechem. The Biography of a Biblical City (The Norton Lectures of the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, 1963; New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964; London: Duckworth, 1965) 191-207.

Chaney, M. L. , "Ancient Palestinian Peasant Movements and the Formation of Premonarchic Israel", in D. N. Freedman – D. F. Graf (eds.), Palestine in Transition: The Emergence of Ancient Israel (Social World of Biblical Antiquity, 2; Sheffield: Almond Press, 1983) 39-90.

Cochavi-Rainey, Z., "Egyptian Influence in the Amarna Texts", UF 29 (1997) 95-114.

Cohen, R. – R. Westbrook (eds.). Amarna Diplomacy: The Beginnings of International Relations (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000).

Dijk, J. van, "The Amarna Period and the Later New Kingdom (c. 1352 – 1069 BC)", in I. Shaw (ed.), The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Second edition (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003) 265-307. [first edition (2000) 272-313]

Edzard, D. O., "Amarna und die Archiv seiner Korrespondenten zwischen Ugarit und Gaza", in J. Amitai (ed.), Biblical Archaeology Today. Proceedings of the International Congress on Biblical Archaeology, Jerusalem, April 1984 (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society / Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities in cooperation with the American Schools of Oriental Research, 1985) 248-259.

Finkelstein, I., "The Territorial-Political System of Canaan in the Late Bronze Age", UF 28 (1996) 221-255.

Finkelstein, I. – N. Na’aman, "Shechem of the Amarna Period and the Rise of the Northern Kingdom of Israel", IEJ 55 (2005) 172-193.

Giles, F. J., The Amarna Age: Western Asia (The Australian Centre for Egyptology, Studies, 5; Warminster; Aris & Phillips, 1997).

Goren, Y. – I. Finkelstein – N. Na’aman, "Petrographic Investigation of the Amarna Tablets", NEA 65 (2002) 196-205. [online version here]

Goren, Y. – I. Finkelstein – N. Na’aman, "The Seat of Three Disputed Canaanite Rulers According to Petrographic Investigation of the Amarna Tablets", TA 29 (2002) 221-237.

Goren, Y. – I. Finkelstein – N. Na'aman, Inscribed in Clay – Provenance Study of the Amarna Tablets and Other Ancient Near Eastern Texts (Tel Aviv: Sonia and Marco Nadler Institute of Archaeology, Tel Aviv University, 2004).

Hachmann, R., "Die ägyptische Verwaltung in Syrien während der Amarnazeit", ZDPV 98 (1982) 17-49.

Halligan, J. M., "The Role of the Peasant in the Amarna Period", in D. N. Freedman – D. F. Graf (eds.), Palestine in Transition: The Emergence of Ancient Israel (Social World of Biblical Antiquity, 2; Sheffield: Almond Press, 1983) 15-24.

Hess, R. S., "Smitten Ant Bites Back: Rhetorical Forms in the Amarna Correspondence from Shechem", in J. C. de Moor – W. G. E. Watson (eds.), Verse in Ancient Near Eastern Prose (AOAT 42; Kevelaer: Butzon & Bercker; Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1993) 95-111.

Hess, R. S., "Rhetorical Forms in the Amarna Correspondence from Jerusalem", Maarav 10 (2003) 221-244.

Izre’el, S., "The Amarna Letters from Canaan", in J. M. Sasson – J. Baines – G. Beckman (eds.), Civilizations of the Ancient Near East. Vol. 4 (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1995) 2411-2419.

Klengel, H., "The Political Situation in Palestine and Syria as Reflected in the Amarna Tablets – A Reconsideration", in Sh. Shawqi (ed.), Studies in the History and Archaeology of Palestine (Damascus: Aleppo University – Palestine Archaeological Centre, 1986) 77-84.

Lemche, N. P., "The Amarna Letters and Palestinian Politics", in L. L. Grabbe (ed.), The Land of Canaan in the Late Bronze Age (LHB/OTS 636; London & New York: Bloomsbury T&T Clark, 2017) 133-146.

Mayes, A. D. H., "International Diplomacy in the Amarna Age", in L. L. Grabbe (ed.), The Land of Canaan in the Late Bronze Age (LHB/OTS 636; London & New York: Bloomsbury T&T Clark, 2017) 147-158.

Moran, W. L., "The Syrian Scribe of the Jerusalem Amarna Letters", in H. Goedicke – J. J. M. Roberts (eds.), In Unity and Diversity: Essays in the History, Literature and Religion of the Ancient Near East (Johns Hopkins University – Near Eastern Studies; Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975) 146-166. Reprinted in W. L. Moran, Amarna Studies: Collected Writings. Edited by J. Huehnergard and S. Izre’el (HSS 54; Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2003) 249-274.

Moran, W. L., Amarna Studies: Collected Writings. Edited by J. Huehnergard and S. Izre’el (HSS 54; Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2003).

Muntingh, L. M., "Syro-Palestinian Problems in the Light of the Amarna Letters", in H.I.H. Prince Takahito Mikasa (ed.), Essays on Ancient Anatolian and Syrian Studies in the 2nd and 1st Millennium B.C. (Bulletin of the Middle Eastern Culture Center in Japan, IV; Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1991) 155-194.

Na’aman, N., "Amarna Letters", ABD I (1992) 174-181.

Na’aman, N., "Canaanite Jerusalem and its Central Hill Country Neighbours in the Second Millennium B.C.E.", UF 24 (1992) 275-291. Reprinted in his Canaan in the Second Millennium... (2005) 173-194 [see below].

Na’aman, N., "The Contribution of the Amarna Letters to the Debate on Jerusalem's Political Position in the Tenth Century B.C.E", BASOR 304 (Nov. 1996) 17-27. Reprinted in his Ancient Israel's History and Historiography: The First Temple Period. Collected Essays, Volume 3 (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2006) 1-17.

Na’aman, N., "The Network of Canaanite Late Bronze Kingdoms and the City of Ashdod", UF 29 (1997) 599-626. Reprinted in his Canaan in the Second Millennium... (2005) 145-172.

Na’aman, N., "The Egyptian-Canaanite Correspondence", in R. Cohen – R. Westbrook (eds.), Amarna Diplomacy: The Beginnings of International Relations (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000) 125-138. Reprinted in Na’aman's Canaan in the Second Millennium... (2005) 25-39.

Na’aman, N., Canaan in the Second Millennium b.c.e. Collected Essays, Volume 2 (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2005). [includes many Amarna-related studies]

Na’aman, N., "The Shephelah according to the Amarna Letters", in I. Finkelstein – N. Na’aman (eds.), The Fire Signals of Lachish: Studies in the Archaeology and History of Israel in the Late Bronze Age, Iron Age, and Persian Period in Honor of David Ussishkin (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2011) 281-299.

Pfälzner, P., "Levantine Kingdoms of the Late Bronze Age", in D. T. Potts (ed.), A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East (Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World. Literature and Culture; Chichester, UK & Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012) II 770-796.

Pfoh, E., Syria-Palestine in the Late Bronze Age: An Anthropology of Politics and Power (Copenhagen International Seminar; London & New York: Routledge, 2016).

Rainey, A. F., Canaanite in the Amarna Tablets: A Linguistic Analysis of the Mixed Dialect Used by the Scribes from Canaan. Vol.1: Orthography, Phonology. Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Pronouns, Nouns, Numerals; Vol.2: Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Verbal System; Vol.3: Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Particles and Adverbs; Vol.4: References and Index of Texts Cited (Handbuch der Orientalistik. 1. Der Nahe und Mittlere Osten, 25 / Handbook of Oriental Studies. 1. The Near and Middle East, 25; Leiden: Brill, 1996).

Rainey, A. F., "Topic and Comment in the Amarna Texts from Canaan", in R. Chazan – W. W. Hallo – L. H. Schiffman (eds.), Ki Baruch Hu: Ancient Near Eastern, Biblical and Judaic Studies in Honor of Baruch A. Levine (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1999) 63-87.

Rainey, A. F., "The ‘Amârnah Texts a Century after Flinders Petrie", Ancient Near Eastern Studies [formerly Abr-Nahrain] 39 (2002) 44-75.

Rainey, A. F., "Amarna and Later. Aspects of Social History", in W. G. Dever – S. Gitin (eds.), Symbiosis, Symbolism, and the Power of the Past. Canaan, Ancient Israel, and Their Neighbors from the Late Bronze Age Through Roman Palaestina. Proceedings of the Centennial Symposium W. F. Albright Institute of Archaeological Research and American Schools of Oriental Research, Jerusalem, May 29–31, 2000 (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2003) 169-187.

Redford, D. B., "Amarna, tell el-", ABD I (1992) 181-182.

Reviv, H., "The Government of Shechem in the El-Amarna Period and in the Days of Abimelech", IEJ 16 (1966) 252-257.

Shaw, I., "Akhetaten (Tell el-Amarna)", in J. G. Westenholz (ed.), Royal Cities of the Biblical World (Jerusalem: Bible Lands Museum, 1996) 83-112.

Stiebing, W. H., "The Amarna Period", in D. N. Freedman – D. F. Graf (eds.) Palestine in Transition. The Emergence of Ancient Israel (Social World of Biblical Antiquity, 2; Sheffield: Almond Press, 1983) 1-14.

Toorn, K. van der, "Cuneiform Documents from Syria-Palestine: Texts, Scribes, and Schools", ZDPV 116 (2000) 97-113.

Tropper J. – J.-P. Vita, Das Kanaano-Akkadische der Amarnazeit (Lehrbücher orientalischer Sprachen, I/1; Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2010).

Vita, J.-P., "The Amarna Letters in the 17th and 18th Editions of Gesenius' Hebrew Dictionary", in S. Schorch – E.-J. Waschke (eds.), Biblische Exegese und hebräische Lexikographie: das "Hebräisch-deutsche Handwörterbuch" von Wilhelm Gesenius als Spiegel und Quelle alttestamentlicher und hebräischer Forschung, 200 Jahre nach seiner ersten Auflage (BZAW 427; Berlin: de Gruyter, 2013) 302-313.

Vita, J.-P., Canaanite Scribes in the Amarna Letters (AOAT 406; Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2015).

Westhuizen, J. P. van der, "The Situation in Syro-Palestine Prior to the Exodus Conquest/Settlement as Reflected in the Amarna Letters", Journal for Semitics / Tydskrif vir Semitistiek 7 (1995) 196-231.

III.    Bibliographical resources

Heintz, J.-G., avec la collaboration de D. Bauer, A. Marx, et L. Millot, Index documentaire d'El-Amarna – I.D.E.A., 1 – Liste/Codage des textes. Index des ouvrages de référence (Travaux du Groupe de recherches et d'études sémitiques anciennes (G.R.E.S.A.), Université des sciences humaines de Strasbourg, 2; Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1982).

Heintz, J.-G., avec la collaboration de D. Bauer, D. Bodi, et L. Millot, et avec une contribution de C. B. F. Walker, Index documentaire d'El-Amarna – I.D.E.A., 2 – Bibliographie des textes babyloniens d'El-Amarna (1888 à 1993) et Concordance des sigles EA (Travaux du Groupe de recherches et d'études Sémitiques anciennes [G.R.E.S.A.], l'Université des sciences humaines de Strasbourg, 4; Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1995).

[With five supplements]

Heintz, J.-G. – L. Millot, "Bibliographie d'El-Amarna: Supplément I [1994-1995] – [Addenda & Corrigenda – Édition du 31 Dec. 1995]", UF 27 (1995) 21-40.

Heintz, J.-G. – L. Millot, "Bibliographie d'El-Amarna: Supplément II [1995-1996] – [= Supplément à I.D.E.A., 2 (1995), pp. 1-119] – [Addenda & Corrigenda – Édition du 31 Décembre 1996]", UF 28 (1996) 257-274.

Heintz, J.-G. – L. Millot, "Bibliographie d'El-Amarna. Supplément III [1997-2000] – [= Supplément à I.D.E.A., Vol. 2 (1995), pp. 1-119] – [Addenda & Corrigenda – Èdition du 31 Décembre 2000]", UF 32 (2000) 219-236.

Heintz, J.-G. – L. Millot – R. Mehmedi, "Bibliographie d'El-Amarna: Supplément IV [2000-2003] – [=Supplément à I. D. E. A., Vol. 2 (1995), pp. 1-119] – [Addenda & Corrigenda – Édition du 30 Septembre 2003]", UF 35 (2003) 231-238.

Heintz, J.-G. – R. Mehmedi – J.-P. Vida, "Bibliographie d'El-Amarna Supplément V [2003-2006] – [= Supplément a I.D.E.A., Vol. 2 (1995), pp. 1-119) – [Addenda & Corrigenda – Édition du 30 Juin 2007]", UF 38 (2006) 313-339.

IV.    Online resources

1.   Amarna: Archaeology and General History

Amarna: Archaeology [the Amarna Project of the University of Cambridge]

Amarna: Archaeology (synthesis-1) [a free-access article by A. Stevens, "The Archaeology of Amarna", in Oxford Handbooks Online; publication date: March 2015]

Amarna: Archaeology (synthesis-2) [A. Stevens, "Tell el-Amarna", in W. Wendrich (ed.), UEE (publication date: 2016-04-21)]

Amarna: Introduction to the Amarna Period [historical and archaeological information, with many images]

Amarna: Synthetic presentation of the Amarna Period [J. Williamson, "Amarna Period", in W. Grajetzki – W. Wendrich (eds.), UEE (publication date: 2015-06-24)]

2.   The Amarna Letters

Amarna Letters: Berlin, Vorderasiatisches Museum [an old site but it offers access to high-resolution photographs of the approximately 200 letters housed in the VAM (more than half of the total corpus)]

Amarna Letters: Discovery [useful general information about the finding of the Amarna tablets, with a selection of translated letters]

Amarna Letters: Translations [selection by A. Dollinger; part of his non-specialist site on ancient Egypt]

Amarna Letters: Translations [a helpful annotated selection of nine Amarna letters (transliteration and translation) by K. C. Hanson]

Amarna Letters: Transliteration [Shlomo Izre’el's transliteration project: preliminary version]

Amarna Letters: Transliteration [Shlomo Izre’el's transliteration project: definitive version of 378 tablets, in Oracc: The Open Richly Annotated Cuneiform Corpus]