Biblical Bibliographies
Charles Conroy [www.cjconroy.net]



Origins of Israel in the Land: Background Topics
The Ḫabiru (Ḫapiru, ʿApiru), the Shasu, and the Suteans (Sutû)



[see also:  Amarna Letters and Nomadism]



The bibliography is divided into two sections as follows:

I.    The Ḫabiru (Ḫapiru, ‘Apiru)

Anbar (Bernstein), M., "’ereṣ hā‘iḇrīm «le pays des Hébreux»", Or N.S. 41 (1972) 383-386.

Astour, M. C., "Habiru", IDBSup (1976) 382-385.

Astour, M. C., "The Ḫapiru in the Amarna Texts. Basic Points of Controversy", UF 31 (1999) 31-50.

Borger, R., "Das Problem der ‘apīru ('Ḫabiru')", ZDPV 74 (1958) 121-132.

Bottéro, J., Le problème des Ḫabiru à la 4e Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale (Cahiers de la Société Asiatique, 12; Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1954).

Bottéro, J., "Ḫabiru", RLA IV,1 (1972) 14-27. [vol. IV was completed in 1975]

Bottéro, J., "Les Habiru, les nomades et les sédentaires", in J. Silva Castillo (ed.), Nomads and Sedentary Peoples. Thirtieth International Congress of Human Sciences in Asia and North Africa (Mexico City: El Colegio de Mexico, 1981) 89-107.

Bry, P., "Les Hébreux dans la Bible: ‘ibrîm et habiru", Semitica et Classica 1 (2008) 39-60.

Buccellati, G. "‘Apirū and Munnabtūtu – The Stateless of the First Cosmopolitan Age", JNES 36 (1977) 145-147.

Cazelles, H., "The Hebrews", in D. Wiseman (ed.), Peoples of Old Testament Times (Oxford: Clarendon, 1973) 1-28. Revised and updated as: Cazelles, H., "Hébreux", in his Autour de l'Exode (Études) (Sources Bibliques; Paris: Gabalda, 1987) 67-97.

Fleming, D. E., "People Without Town: The ‘Apiru in the Amarna Evidence", in R. Hasselbach – N. Pat-El (eds.), Language and Nature: Papers Presented to John Huehnergard on the Occasion of his 60th Birthday (Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization, 67; Chicago, IL: Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 2012) 39-49.

Freedman, D. N. – B. E. Willoughby, "עִבְרִי ‘iḇrî", TWAT V (1986) 1039-1056; = TDOT 10 (1999) 430-445.

Giveon, R., "Hapiru", 2 (1977) 952-955.

Gottwald, N. K., The Tribes of Yahweh: A Sociology of the Religion of Liberated Israel, 1250-1050 B.C.E. (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1979 / London: SCM, 1980), esp. 389-425.435-485. [Reprinted under the same title, but with a new Epilogue and additional bibliography, in the series: The Biblical Seminar, 66; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1999.]

Greenberg, M., The Ḫab/piru (American Oriental Series, 39; New Haven, CT: American Oriental Society, 1955; second augmented edition 1961).

Greenberg, M., "Ḫab/piru and Hebrews", in B. Mazar (ed.), The World History of the Jewish People. First Series: Ancient Time. Vol. Two: Patriarchs (Tel-Aviv: Massada Publishing Co. & Jewish History Publications; London: W. H. Allen; New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1970) 188-200.279-281.

Haas, V. – I. Wegener, "Betrachtungen zu den habiru", in B. Böck – E. C. Cancik-Kirschbaum – T. Richter (eds), Munuscula Mesopotamica. Festschrift für Johannes Renger (AOAT 267; Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 1999) 197-200.

Killebrew, A. E., "Hybridity, Hapiru, and the Archaeology of Ethnicity in Second Millennium BCE Western Asia," in J. McInerney (ed.), A Companion to Ethnicity in the Ancient Mediterranean (Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World; Chichester: Wiley Blackwell, 2014) 142-157.

Koch, K., "Die Hebräer vom Auszug aus Ägypten bis zum Grossreich Davids", VT 19 (1969) 37-81.

Kupper, J.-R., "Sutéens et Ḫapiru", RA 55 (1961) 197-200.

Lemche, N. P., "'Hebrew' as a National Name for Israel", ST 33 (1979) 1-23.

Lemche, N. P., "The Hebrew and the Seven Year Cycle", BN 25 (1984) 65-75.

Lemche, N. P., "Ḫabiru / Ḫapiru", ABD III (1992) 6-10.

Liverani, Mario, "Il fuoruscitismo in Siria nella tarda età del bronzo", Rivista storica italiana 77 (1965) 315-336.

Liverani, Mario, "Farsi ḫabiru", Vicino Oriente 2 (1979) 65-77.

Loretz, O., Habiru – Hebräer. Eine sozio-linguistische Studie über die Herkunft des Gentiliziums ‘ibri vom Apellativum ḫabiru (BZAW 160; Berlin: de Gruyter, 1984).

Mendenhall, G. E., The Tenth Generation: The Origins of the Biblical Tradition (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1973), esp. 122-141 (Chap. V: "The ‘Apiru Movements in the Late Bronze Age").

Moran, W. L., "Join the ‘Apiru or Become One?", in D. M. Golomb (ed.), "Working With No Data": Semitic and Egyptian Studies Presented to Thomas O. Lambdin (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1987) 209-212. Reprinted in W. L. Moran, Amarna Studies: Collected Writings. Edited by J. Huehnergard and S. Izre’el (HSS 54; Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2003) 317-322.

Na’aman, N., "The Town of Ibirta and the Relations of the ‘Apiru and the Shasu", Göttinger Miszellen 57 (1982) 27-33. Reprinted in his Canaan in the Second Millennium b.c.e. Collected Essays, Volume 2 (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2005) 275-279

Na’aman, N., "Ḫabiru and Hebrews: The Transfer of a Social Term to the Literary Sphere", JNES 45 (1986) 271-288. Reprinted in his Canaan in the Second Millennium b.c.e. Collected Essays, Volume 2 (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2005) 252-274.

Na’aman, N., "Biryawaza of Damascus and the Date of the Kāmid el-Lōz ‘Apiru Letters", UF 20 (1988) 179-194. Reprinted in his Canaan in the Second Millennium b.c.e. Collected Essays, Volume 2 (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2005) 82-98.

Na’aman, N., "Ḫabiru-Like Bands in the Assyrian Empire and Bands in Biblical Historiography", JAOS 120 (2000) 621-624. Reprinted in his Ancient Israel and Its Neighbors: Interaction and Counteractions. Collected Essays, Vol. 1 (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2005) 298-304.

Rainey, A. F., "Unruly Elements in Late Bronze Canaanite Society", in D. P. Wright – D. N. Freedman – A. Hurvitz (eds.), Pomegranates and Golden Bells. Studies in Biblical, Jewish, and Near Eastern Ritual, Law, and Literature in Honor of Jacob Milgrom (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1995) 481-496.

Rainey, A. F., "Shasu or Habiru: Who Were the Early Israelites?", BAR 34/6 (Nov.-Dec. 2008) 51-55.

Rowton, M. B., "The Topological Factor in the Ḫapiru Problem", in Assyriological Studies 16 (1965) 375-387.

Rowton, M. B., "Dimorphic Structure and the Problem of ‘Apiru / ‘Ibrim", JNES 35 (1976) 13-20.

Rowton, M. B., "Dimorphic Structure and the Parasocial Element", JNES 36 (1977) 181-198.

Salvini, M., The Habiru Prism of King Tunip-Tessup of Tikunani (Documenta Asiana, 3; Roma: Istituti Editoriali e Poligrafici Internazionali, 1996).

Vaux, R. de, "Le problème des Ḫapiru après quinze années", JNES 27 (1968) 221-228.

Vaux, R. de, Histoire ancienne d'Israël. Vol. I: Des origines à l'installation en Canaan (EtBib; Paris: Gabalda, 1971), esp. 106-112.202-208. For English and Spanish translations see here.

Weippert, M., Die Landnahme der israelitischen Stämme in der neueren wissenschaftlichen Diskussion (FRLANT 92; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1967); = The Settlement of the Israelite Tribes in Palestine. A Critical Survey of Recent Scholarly Debate (SBT II/21; London: SCM, 1971). See esp. the section on "‘Apiru und Hebräer" 66-102 / "‘apiru and Hebrews" ET 63-102.

Weippert, M., "Abraham der Hebräer?", Bib 52 (1971) 407-426.

Zwickel, W., "Der Beitrag der Ḫabiru zur Entstehung des Königtums", UF 28 (1996) 751-766. Reprinted in W. Zwickel, Studien zur Geschichte Israels (SBAB 59; Stuttgart: Katholisches Bibelwerk, 2015) 61-76.

II.    The Shasu and the Suteans (Sutû)

Astour, M. C., "Yahweh in Egyptian Topographic Lists", in M. Görg – E. Pusch (eds.), Festschrift Elmar Edel: 12. März 1979. Unter Mitwirkung von A. Wucklet und K.-J. Seyfried (AAT 1; Bamberg: M. Görg, 1979) 17-34. [on the "Shasu Yhw" (Shasu of Yahweh?)]

Giveon, R., Les bédouins Shosou des documents égyptiens (Documenta et Monumenta Orientis Antiqui, 18; Leiden: Brill, 1971).

Giveon, R., "Schasu", 5 (1984) 533-535.

Görg, M., "Zur Geschichte der Šȝśw", Or N.S. 45 (1976) 424-428.

Görg, M., "Tuthmosis III und die Šȝśw-region", JNES 38 (1979) 199-202.

Görg, M., "Namenstudien VII: Šȝśw-Beduinen und Sutu-Nomaden", BN 11 (1980) 18-20.

Görg, M., "Ein weiterer Beleg für die Sutäer", BN 21 (1983) 28-30.

Heltzer, M., with a contribution by S. Arbeli, The Suteans (Istituto Universitario Orientale. Seminario di Studi Asiatici. Series Minor, 13; Naples: Istituto Universitario Orientale; Roma: Herder, 1981).

Knauf, E. A., Midian. Untersuchungen zur Geschichte Palästinas und Nordarabiens am Ende des 2. Jahrtausends v.Chr. (Abhandlungen des Deutschen Palästinavereins, 10; Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1988), esp. 97-124.

Kupper, J.-R., "Sutéens et Ḫapiru", RA 55 (1961) 197-200.

Levy, T. E. – R. B. Adams – A. Muniz, "Archaeology and the Shasu Nomads: Recent Excavations in the Jabal Hamrat Fidan, Jordan", in W. H. C. Propp – R. E. Friedman (eds.), Le-David Maskil: A Birthday Tribute for David Noel Freedman (Biblical and Judaic Studies from the University of California San Diego, 9; Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2004) 63-89.

Macchi, J.-D., "Aurait-on perdu les Shosou yahwistes du Sinai?", in T. Römer (ed.), Lectio difficilior probabilior? L'exégèse comme expérience de décloisonnement. Mélanges offerts à Françoise Smyth-Florentin (Dielheimer Blätter zum Alten Testament und seiner Rezeption in der Alten Kirche, Beiheft 12; Heidelberg: Wiss.-theol. Seminar, 1991) 45-53.

Na’aman, N., "The Town of Ibirta and the Relations of the ‘Apiru and the Shasu", Göttinger Miszellen 57 (1982) 27-33. Reprinted in his Canaan in the Second Millennium b.c.e. Collected Essays, Volume 2 (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2005) 275-279

Rainey, A. F., "Unruly Elements in Late Bronze Canaanite Society", in D. P. Wright – D. N. Freedman – A. Hurvitz (eds.), Pomegranates and Golden Bells. Studies in Biblical, Jewish, and Near Eastern Ritual, Law, and Literature in Honor of Jacob Milgrom (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1995) 481-496.

Rainey, A. F., "Shasu or Habiru: Who Were the Early Israelites?", BAR 34/6 (Nov.-Dec. 2008) 51-55.

Staubli, T., Das Image der Nomaden im Alten Israel und in der Ikonographie seiner sesshaften Nachbarn (OBO 107; Freiburg, Schweiz: Universitätsverlag; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1991), esp. 35-66 ("Die Schasunomaden in zeitgenössischer Ikonographie").

Ward, W. A., "The Shasu 'Bedouin'. Notes on a Recent Publication", JESHO 15 (1972) 35-60.

Ward, W. A., "Shasu", ABD V (1992) 1165-1167.

Weippert, M., "Semitische Nomaden des zweiten Jahrtausends. Über die Šȝśw der ägyptischen Quellen", Bib 55 (1974) 265-280.427-433.

Zadok, R., "Suteans and Other West Semites during the Latter Half of the Second Millennium B.C", OLP 16 (1985) 59-70.