Biblical Bibliographies
Charles Conroy [www.cjconroy.net]



Scribes, Schools, and the Formation of Biblical Literature



[see also:  Literacy and Writing and Prophetic Books]



The bibliography is divided into three main sections as follows:

I.    Scribes and schools in ancient Israel and surrounding cultures

1.   Ancient Israel

Assmann, J., Fünf Stufen auf dem Wege zum Kanon: Tradition und Schriftkultur im frühen Judentum und seiner Umwelt. Vortrag anlässlich der Promotion zum D. Theol. ehrenhalber vor der Evangelisch-Theologischen Fakultät der Westfälischen Wilhelms-Universität Münster am 12. Januar 1998. Mit einer laudatio von H.-P. Müller (Münstersche Theologische Vorträge, 1; Münster: LIT Verlag, 1999). Reprinted as "Fünf Stufen auf dem Wege zum Kanon. Tradition und Schriftkultur im alten Israel und frühen Judentum", in J. Assmann, Religion und kulturelles Gedächtnis. Zehn Studien (München: Beck, 2000) 81-100.

Crenshaw, J. L., "Education in Ancient Israel", JBL 104 (1985) 601-615.

Crenshaw, J. L., Education in Ancient Israel: Across the Deadening Silence (Anchor Bible Reference Library; New York: Doubleday, 1998).

Davies, G. I., "Were There Schools in Ancient Israel?", in J. Day – R. P. Gordon – H. G. M. Williamson (eds.), Wisdom in Ancient Israel. Essays in Honour of J. A. Emerton (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995) 199-211.

Demsky, A. – M. Bar-Ilan, "Writing in Ancient Israel and Early Judaism", in M. J. Mulder (ed.), Mikra. Text, Translation, Reading and Interpretation of the Hebrew Bible in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (Compendia Rerum Iudaicarum ad Novum Testamentum. Section 2: The Literature of the Jewish People in the Period of the Second Temple and the Talmud, Volume 1; Assen – Maastricht: Van Gorcum; Philadelphia: Fortress, 1988) 1-38. [This volume was later reprinted as a paperback first at: Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2004, and then at Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2010.]

Golka, F. W., "Die israelitische Weisheitsschule oder 'des Kaisers neue Kleider'", VT 33 (1983) 257-270.

Grabbe, L. L., "Scribes, Writing, and Epigraphy in the Second Temple Period", in E. Eshel – Y. Levin (eds.), 'See, I Will Bring a Scroll Recounting What Befell Me' (Ps 40:8): Epigraphy and Daily Life from the Bible to the Talmud, Dedicated to the Memory of Professor Hanan Eshel (JAJSup 12; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2014) 105-121.

Haran, M., "On the Diffusion of Literacy and Schools in Ancient Israel", in J. A. Emerton (ed.), Congress Volume Jerusalem 1986 (VTSup 40; Leiden: Brill, 1988) 81-95.

Heaton, E. W., The School Tradition in the Old Testament. The Bampton Lectures for 1994 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994).

Jamieson-Drake, D. W., Scribes and Schools in Monarchic Judah: A Socio-Archeological Approach (JSOTSup 109 / The Social World of Biblical Antiquity, 9; Sheffield: Almond Press, 1991).

Lang, B., "Schule und Unterricht im alten Israel", in M. Gilbert (ed.), La Sagesse de l'Ancien Testament. (Journées bibliques de Louvain 29) (BETL 51; Gembloux: Duculot; Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1979) 186-201. Reprinted [same title] in B. Lang, Wie wird man Prophet in Israel? Aufsätze zum Alten Testament (Düsseldorf: Patmos, 1980) 104-119. [An updated version of the paper appeared in: M. Gilbert (ed.), La Sagesse de l'Ancien Testament. Nouvelle édition mise à jour (BETL 51; Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1990).]

Lemaire, A., Les écoles et la formation de la Bible dans l'ancien Israël (OBO 39; Fribourg: Éditions Universitaires; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1981); = Le scuole e la formazione della Bibbia nell'Israele antico (Studi biblici, 57; Brescia: Paideia, 1981).

Lemaire, A., "Sagesse et écoles", VT 34 (1984) 270-281. [reply to Golka 1983]

Lemaire, A. – J. T. Townsend, "Education: 2. Ancient Israel; 3. Greco-Roman Period", ABD II (1992) 305-312.312-317. [for the first part on Mesopotamia, see below s.v. Civil]

Lemaire, A., "Scribes. II. Ancien Testament – Ancien Israël", DBSup 12 (1996) 253-266 [for the ancient Near Eastern material see below in the second section s.v. Lemaire; the article first appeared in Fasc. 66 (1992) and 67 (1993)]

Lemaire, A., "Schools and Literacy in Ancient Israel and Early Judaism", in L. G. Perdue (ed.), The Blackwell Companion to the Hebrew Bible (Oxford: Blackwell, 2001) 207-217.

Leuchter, M. (ed.), "Scribes Before and After 587 BCE: A Conversation", JHS volume 7, article 10 (2007). (online here; download directly here)

Lipiński, E., "Royal and State Scribes in Ancient Jerusalem", in J. A. Emerton (ed.), Congress Volume Jerusalem 1986 (VTSup 40; Leiden: Brill, 1988) 157-164.

Liwak, R., "'Was wir gehört und kennengelernt und unsere Väter uns erzählt haben' (Ps 78,3): Überlegungen zum Schulbetrieb im Alten Israel", in E. Axmacher – K. Schwarzwäller (eds.), Belehrter Glaube: Festschrift für J. Wirsching zum 65. Geburtstag (Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang, 1994) 175-193. Reprinted [same title] in R. Liwak, Israel in der altorientalischen Welt: Gesammelte Studien zur Kultur- und Religionsgeschichte des antiken Israel. Hrsg. von Markus Witte und Dagmar Pruin (BZAW 444; Berlin: de Gruyter, 2013) 216-234.

Milstein, S. J., Tracking the Master Scribe: Revision Through Introduction in Biblical and Mesopotamian Literature (Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press, 2016).

Olivier, J. P. J., "Schools and Wisdom Literature", JNSL 4 (1975) 49-60.

Person, R. F., "The Ancient Israelite Scribe as Performer", JBL 117 (1998) 601-609.

Person, R. F., "Education and the Transmission of Tradition", in S. Niditch (ed.), The Wiley Blackwell Companion to Ancient Israel (Wiley Blackwell Companions to Religion; Malden, MA: Wiley Blackwell, 2016) 366-378.

Puech, E., "Les écoles dans l'Israël préexilique: données epigraphiques", in J. A. Emerton (ed.), Congress Volume Jerusalem 1986 (VTSup 40; Leiden: Brill, 1988) 189-203.

Quick, L., "Recent Research on Ancient Israelite Education: A Bibliographic Essay", CBR 13.1 (Oct. 2014) 9-33.

Renz, J., Schrift und Schreibertradition: Eine paläographische Studie zum kulturgeschichtlichen Verhältnis von israelitischem Nordreich und Südreich (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1997).

Rollston, C., "Scribal Education in Ancient Israel: The Old Hebrew Epigraphic Evidence", BASOR 344 (Nov. 2006) 47-74.

Rollston, C. A., "Scribal Curriculum during the First Temple Period: Epigraphic Hebrew and Biblical Evidence", in B. B. Schmidt (ed.), Contextualizing Israel's Sacred Writings: Ancient Literacy, Orality, and Literary Production (SBLAIL 22; Atlanta, GA: SBL Press, 2015) 71-101.

Schams, C., Jewish Scribes in the Second-Temple Period (JSOTSup 291; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1998).

Schmid, K., "Schreiber/Schreiberausbildung in Israel", RGG4 7 (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2004) 1001-1002.

Tov, E., Scribal Practices and Approaches Reflected in the Texts Found in the Judean Desert (STDJ 54; Leiden: Brill, 2004).

Vayntrub, J., "The Book of Proverbs and the Idea of Ancient Israelite Education", ZAW 128 (2016) 96-114.

Weeks, S., Early Israelite Wisdom (Oxford: Clarendon, 1994), esp. 132-156.

Whisenant, J., "Let the Stones Speak! Document Production by Iron Age West Semitic Scribal Institutions and the Question of Biblical Sources", in B. B. Schmidt (ed.), Contextualizing Israel's Sacred Writings: Ancient Literacy, Orality, and Literary Production (SBLAIL 22; Atlanta, GA: SBL Press, 2015) 133-160.

Whybray, R. N., The Intellectual Tradition in the Old Testament (BZAW 135; Berlin: de Gruyter, 1974), esp. 31-43.

2.   Ancient Near East (including Egypt and Canaan)

Byrne, R., "The Refuge of Scribalism", BASOR 345 (Feb. 2007) 1-31.

Civil, M., "Education: 1. Education in Mesopotamia", ABD II (1992) 301-305. [for the other parts of the article see above s.v. Lemaire & Townsend]

Cohen, Y., The Scribes and Scholars of the City of Emar in the Late Bronze Age (HSS 59; Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2009).

Crisostomo, C. J., "Writing Sumerian, Creating Texts: Reflections on Text-Building Practices in Old Babylonian Schools", JANER 15 (2015) 121-142.

Demsky, A., "The Education of Canaanite Scribes in the Mesopotamian Cuneiform Tradition", in J. Klein – A. Skaist (eds.), Bar-Ilan Studies in Assyriology Dedicated to Pinḥas Artzi (Ramat-Gan: Bar-Ilan University Press, 1990) 157-170.

Devecchi, E. (ed.), Palaeography and Scribal Practices in Syro-Palestine and Anatolia in the Late Bronze Age. Papers Read at a Symposium in Leiden, 17-18 December 2009 (PIHANS, Uitgaven van het Nederlands Instituut voor het Nabije Oosten te Leiden, 119; Leiden: Nederlands Instituut voor het Nabije Oosten, 2012).

Egmond, W. S. van – W. H. van Soldt (eds.), Theory and Practice of Knowledge Transfer: Studies in School Education in the Ancient Near East and Beyond. Papers Read at a Symposium in Leiden, 17-19 December 2008 (PIHANS, Uitgaven van het Nederlands Instituut voor het Nabijie Oosten te Leiden, 121; Leiden: Nederlands Instituut voor het Nabije Oosten, 2012).

Ellison, J. L., "The Scribal Art at Ugarit", in J. M. Hutton – A. D. Rubin (eds.), Epigraphy, Philology, and the Hebrew Bible: Methodological Perspectives on Philological and Comparative Study of the Hebrew Bible in Honor of Jo Ann Hackett (ANEM 12; Atlanta, GA: SBL Press & Centro de Estudios de Historia del Antiguo Oriente [Universidad Católica Argentina, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Políticas y de la Comunicación], 2015) 157-190. The book can be downloaded freely here.

George, A. R., "In Search of the é-dub.ba.a: The Ancient Mesopotamian School in Literature and Reality", in Y. Sefati – P. Artzi – C. Cohen – B. L. Eichler – V. A. Hurowitz (eds.), "An Experienced Scribe Who Neglects Nothing". Ancient Near Eastern Studies in Honor of Jacob Klein (Bethesda, MD: CDL Press, 2005) 127-137.

Gesche, P., Schulunterricht in Babylonien im ersten Jahrtausend v. Chr. (AOAT 275; Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2001).

Gordin, S., Hittite Scribal Circles: Scholarly Tradition and Writing Habits (Studien zu den Bogazköy-Texten, 59; Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2015).

Horowitz, W. – T. Oshima – S. Sanders (eds.), Cuneiform in Canaan: Cuneiform Sources from the Land of Israel in Ancient Times (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society and The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 2006).

Huehnergard, J.– W. van Soldt, "A Cuneiform Lexical Text from Ashkelon with Canaanite Column", IEJ 49 (1999) 184-192.

Izre’el, Sh., The Amarna Scholarly Tablets (Cuneiform Monographs, 9; Groningen: STYX, 1997).

Lemaire, A., "Scribes. I. Scribes: Proche-Orient ancien", DBSup 12 (1996) 244-253. [for the rest of the article see above in the Ancient Israel section s.v. Lemaire]

Lipiński, E., "Scribes d'Ugarit et de Jérusalem", in H. L. J. Vanstiphout – K. Jongeling – F. Leemhuis – G. J. Reinink (eds.), Scripta Signa Vocis. Studies about Scripts, Scriptures, Scribes and Languages in the Near East, Presented to J. H. Hospers (Groningen: Egbert Forsten, 1986) 143-154.

Milstein, S. J., Tracking the Master Scribe: Revision Through Introduction in Biblical and Mesopotamian Literature (Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press, 2016).

Pearce, L. E., "The Scribes and Scholars of Ancient Mesopotamia", in J. M. Sasson (ed.), Civilizations of the Ancient Near East (New York: Scribner's, 1995) 2265-2278.

Pernigotti, S. (ed.), Scuola e cultura nell'Egitto del Nuovo Regno. Le "Miscellanee neo-egiziane" (TVOA 1/6; Brescia: Paideia, 2005).

Reade, J., "Visual Evidence for the Status and Activities of Assyrian Scribes", in G. B. Lanfranchi – D. Morandi Bonacossi – C. Pappi – S. Ponchia (eds.), Leggo! Studies Presented to Frederick Mario Fales on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday (Leipziger Altorientalische Studien, 2; Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2012) 699-717.

Robson, E., "The Tablet House: A Scribal School in Old Babylonian Nippur", Revue d'Assyriologie et d'archéologie orientale 95 (2001) 39-66.

Saadé, G., "La vie intellectuelle et l'enseignement à Ougarit", in L. Eslinger – G. Taylor (eds.), Ascribe to the Lord. Biblical and Other Studies in Memory of Peter C. Craigie (JSOTSup 67; Sheffield: JSOT, 1988) 69-90.

Sasson, J. M., "The Burden of Scribes", in T. Abusch (ed.), Riches Hidden in Secret Places: Ancient Near Eastern Studies in Memory of Thorkild Jacobsen (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2002) 211-228.

Soldt, W. H. van, "Babylonian Lexical, Religious and Literary Texts and Scribal Education at Ugarit and its Implications for the Alphabetic Literary Texts", in M. Dietrich – O. Loretz (eds.), Ugarit: Ein ostmediterranes Kulturzentrum im Alten Orient. Ergebnisse und Perspektive der Forschung. Band 1: Ugarit und seine altorientalische Umwelt (Abhandlungen zur Literatur Alt-Syrien-Palästinas, 7; Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 1995) 171-212.

Toorn, K. van der, "Cuneiform Documents from Syria-Palestine: Texts, Scribes, and Schools", ZDPV 116 (2000) 97-113.

Velde, H. te, "Scribes and Literacy in Ancient Egypt", in H. L. J. Vanstiphout – K. Jongeling – F. Leemhuis – G. J. Reinink (eds.), Scripta Signa Vocis. Studies about Scripts, Scriptures, Scribes and Languages in the Near East, Presented to J. H. Hospers (Groningen: Egbert Forsten, 1986) 253-264.

Veldhuis, N., "Intellectual History and Assyriology", JANEH 1 (2014) 21-36.

Visicato, G., The Power and the Writing: The Early Scribes of Mesopotamia (Bethesda, MD: CDL, 2000).

Volk, K., "Edubba’a und Edubba’a-Literatur: Rätsel und Lösungen", ZA 90 (2000) 1-30.

Williams, R. J., "Scribal Training in Ancient Egypt", JAOS 92 (1972) 214-221.

II.    The formation of scriptural literature in Israel: general questions

Beckwith, R. T., "Formation of the Hebrew Bible", in M. J. Mulder (ed.), Mikra. Text, Translation, Reading and Interpretation of the Hebrew Bible in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (Compendia Rerum Iudaicarum ad Novum Testamentum. Section 2: The Literature of the Jewish People in the Period of the Second Temple and the Talmud, Volume 1; Assen – Maastricht: Van Gorcum; Philadelphia: Fortress, 1988) 39-86. [This volume was later reprinted as a paperback first at: Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2004, and then at Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2010.]

Ben Zvi, E., "The Urban Center of Jerusalem and the Development of the Hebrew Bible", in W. E. Aufrecht – N. A. Mirau – S. W. Gauley (eds.), Aspects of Urbanism in Antiquity: From Mesopotamia to Crete (JSOTSup 244; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1997) 194-209.

Bosshard-Nepustil, E., Schriftwerdung der Hebräischen Bibel: Thematisierungen der Schriftlichkeit biblischer Texte im Rahmen ihrer Literaturgeschichte (ATANT 106; Zürich: Theologischer Verlag, 2015).

Carr, D. M., Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (Oxford – New York: Oxford University Press, 2005). German version: Schrift und Erinnerungskultur: die Entstehung der Bibel und der antiken Literatur im Rahmen der Schreiberausbildung (ATANT 107; Zürich: Theologischer Verlag, 2015).

Carr, D. M., "Torah on the Heart: Literary Jewish Textuality Within Its Ancient Near Eastern Context", Oral Tradition 25 (2010) 17-39. Can be downloaded here.

Carr, D. M., The Formation of the Hebrew Bible: A New Reconstruction (Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press, 2011).

Carr, D. M., "The Formation of the Hebrew Bible: Sources, Compositional Layers, and Other Revisions", in S. Niditch (ed.), The Wiley Blackwell Companion to Ancient Israel (Wiley Blackwell Companions to Religion; Malden, MA: Wiley Blackwell, 2016) 103-117.

Davies, P. R., Scribes and Schools: The Canonization of the Hebrew Scriptures (Library of Ancient Israel; Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox, 1998).

Davies, P. R. – T. Römer (eds.), Writing the Bible: Scribes, Scribalism and Script (BibleWorld; Durham: Acumen, 2013).

Finkelstein, I. – N. A. Silberman, The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts (New York: The Free Press, 2001). (for full details about various translations see here.)

Geoghegan, J. C., "The Levites and the Literature of the Late-Seventh Century", JHS volume 7, article 10 (2007) [part of multi-author article "Scribes Before and After 587 BCE: A Conversation", edited by M. Leuchter]. (online here; download directly here)

Hendel, R. S., "What is a Biblical Book?", in C. Werman (ed.), From Author to Copyist: Essays on the Composition, Redaction, and Transmission of the Hebrew Bible in Honor of Zipi Talshir (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2015) 283-302. Revised version in R. Hendel, Steps to a New Edition of the Hebrew Bible (Text-Critical Studies, 10; Atlanta, GA: SBL Press, 2016) 101-125.

Kratz, R. G., "Jüdische Archive", in his Historisches und biblisches Israel. Drei Überblicke zum Alten Testament (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2013) 181-291.

Leuchter, M., "Zadokites, Deuteronomists, and the Exilic Debate Over Scribal Authority", JHS volume 7, article 10 (2007) [part of multi-author article "Scribes Before and After 587 BCE: A Conversation", edited by M. Leuchter]. (online here; download directly here)

Levinson, B. M., Legal Revision and Religious Renewal in Ancient Israel (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007).

Niemann, H. M., "Kein Ende des Büchermachens in Israel und Juda (Koh 12,12) – wann begann es?", BK 53 (1998) 127-134. Reprinted [same title] in H. M. Niemann, History of Ancient Israel, Archaeology, and Bible: Collected Essays / Geschichte Israels, Archäologie und Bibel: gesammelte Aufsätze. Herausgegeben von M. Gerhards (AOAT 418; Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2015) 127-138.

Otto, E., "Scribal Scholarship in the Formation of Torah and Prophets: A Postexilic Scribal Debate between Priestly Scholarship and Literary Prophecy – The Example of the Book of Jeremiah and its Relation to the Pentateuch", in G. N. Knoppers – B. M. Levinson (eds.), The Pentateuch as Torah: New Models for Understanding Its Promulgation and Acceptance (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2007) 171-184.

Schaper, J., "Schriftkultur und Orthodoxie: Anthropologische Beobachtungen zu einem theologischen Thema anhand des Alten Testaments", in J. van Oorschot – A. Wagner (eds.), Anthropologie(n) des Alten Testaments (Veröffentlichungen der Wissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft für Theologie, 42; Leipzig: Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, 2015) 159-169.

Schmid, K., "Authorship, I: Ancient Near East and Hebrew Bible/Old Testament", Encyclopedia of the Bible and its Reception, Vol. 3 (Berlin & New York: de Gruyter, 2011) 116-120.

Schmid, K., "The Canon and the Cult: The Emergence of Book Religion in Ancient Israel and the Gradual Sublimation of the Temple Cult", JBL 131 (2012) 289-305.

Schmidt, B. B. (ed.), Contextualizing Israel's Sacred Writings: Ancient Literacy, Orality, and Literary Production (SBLAIL 22; Atlanta, GA: SBL Press, 2015).

Schniedewind, W. M., How the Bible Became a Book. The Textualization of Ancient Israel (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004); = Comment la Bible est devenue un livre, La révolution de l'écriture et du texte dans l'ancien Israël (Paris: Bayard, 2006); = Come la Bibbia divenne un libro: la testualizzazione dell'antico Israele (Brescia: Queriniana, 2008).

Schniedewind, W. M., "Scripturalization in Ancient Judah", in B. B. Schmidt (ed.), Contextualizing Israel's Sacred Writings: Ancient Literacy, Orality, and Literary Production (SBLAIL 22; Atlanta, GA: SBL Press, 2015) 305-321.

Toit, J. S. du, Textual Memory: Ancient Archives, Libraries and the Hebrew Bible (Social World of Biblical Antiquity, II/6; Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix Press, 2011).

Toorn, K. van der, Scribal Culture and the Making of the Hebrew Bible (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007).

Ulrich, E., The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Developmental Composition of the Bible (VTSup 169; Leiden: Brill, 2015).

Wilson, R. R., "Orality and Writing in the Creation of Exilic Prophetic Literature", in J. J. Collins – T. M. Lemos – S. M. Olyan (eds.), Worship, Women, and War: Essays in Honor of Susan Niditch (Brown Judaic Studies, 357; Providence, RI: Brown Judaic Studies, 2015) 83-96.

Wright, J. L., "Writing the Restoration: Compositional Agenda and the Role of Ezra in Nehemiah 8", JHS volume 7, article 10 (2007) [part of multi-author article "Scribes Before and After 587 BCE: A Conversation", edited by M. Leuchter]. (online here; download directly here)

III.    The Jerusalem temple library

Gallagher, E. L., "The Jerusalem Temple Library and Its Implications for the Canon of Scripture", Restoration Quarterly 57 (2015) 39-52.

Horbury, W., "The Temple Library in Apocalyptic Legend", in J. Ashton (ed.), Revealed Wisdom: Studies in Apocalyptic in Honour of Christopher Rowland (Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity, 88; Leiden: Brill, 2014) 87-98.

Klijn, A. F. J., "A Library of Scriptures in Jerusalem", in K. Treu (ed.), Studia Codicologica (Texte und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchristlichen Literatur, 124; Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1977) 265-272.

Kooij, A. van der, "The Canonization of Ancient Books Kept in the Temple of Jerusalem", in A. van der Kooij – K. van der Toorn (eds.), Canonization and Decanonization: Papers Presented to the International Conference of the Leiden Institute for the Study of Religions (LISOR) Held at Leiden 9–10 January 1997 (Studies in the History of Religions, 82; Leiden: Brill, 1998) 17-40.

Kratz, R. G., "Jüdische Archive", in his Historisches und biblisches Israel. Drei Überblicke zum Alten Testament (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2013) 181-291.

Na'aman, N., "The Temple Library of Jerusalem and the Composition of the Book of Kings", in A. Lemaire (ed.), Congress Volume Leiden 2004 (VTSup 109; Leiden: Brill, 2006) 129-152.

Sarna, N. M., "The Order of the Books", in C. Berlin (ed.), Studies in Jewish Bibliography, History and Literature in Honor of I. Edward Kiev (New York: Ktav, 1971) 407-413.

Talmon, Sh., "The Three Scrolls of the Law that were Found in the Temple Court", Textus 2 (1962) 14-27.

Toit, J. S. du, Textual Memory: Ancient Archives, Libraries and the Hebrew Bible (Social World of Biblical Antiquity, II/6; Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix Press, 2011).

Toorn, K. van der, Scribal Culture and the Making of the Hebrew Bible (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007), esp. 237-244.